Proximate Assessment of Physicochemical and Microbial Parameter of Five Different Bottled Water in Kano
Ambrose E. Ekevwe, Aloba Isaac, Funmilayo O. Olatunji & Augustina Aroh
DOI : 10.36344/ccijav.v02i03.004 | Cross Current Int J Agri Vet Sci, 2020; 2(4):17-21.
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The study sampled five bottled water consumed in Kano which include Sona, Santana, Aquafina, Eva and Swan bottled water (popularly consumed in eateries, suya spots, garage among others in kano). Analysis was done using standard method and results obtained for the physicochemical and microbial assay was below the guidelines limit of WHO, indicating the suitability of the bottled water analyzed for the aforementioned parameters. Hence, the populist believed bottled water is safe for consumption; thorough monitoring survey is needed to enhance the quality and safety sustenance.
Economics of Sweet Potato Marketing In Zing Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria
Gani, B.S., Rukwe, D. T. and Elizabeth, Y.J
DOI : 10.36344/ccijav.v02i03.003 | Cross Current Int J Agri Vet Sci, 2020; 2(3):9-16.
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This study was conducted on economics of sweet potato marketing in Zing Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: identify the socio economic characteristics of sweet potato marketers in the study area, estimate the marketing margin and marketing efficiency of sweet potato marketing in the study area, identify the factors affecting sweet potato marketing in the area and determine the constraints faced by the traders in marketing the crop. Data for this study were collected using structured questionnaire. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select respondents for the study. The data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The socio-economic characteristics result showed that about 77.6% of the sweet potato marketers were male, 91.8% of the respondents were young people whose ages ranged between 28 to 57 years with 63.3% married marketers. The result revealed that 83.7% of the sweet potato marketers had formal education, 83.7% marketers did not belong to any cooperative organization, 79.59 % of marketers had no access to credit to finance their sweet potato marketing activities and 42.9% had 6-10years’ experience in sweet potato trading. The result shows that the gross marketing margin and net marketing margin were N6,921.28 and N6,571.28 respectively with marketing efficiency of 0.59koko.The logit regression result revealed that out of the 10 independent variables included in the model, 8 variables were statistically significant at 1% (p<0.01), 5% (p<0.05) and 10% (p<0.10) respectively representing 80% of the variables. The result reveals that, inadequate capital, low profit, inadequate and poor storage facilities, price fluctuation and lack of standard measure were some of the problem identified as problems militating against Sweet Potato marketing in the study area. Sweet potato marketing is a profitable business with attractive net return and investment in Zing LGA of Tarab
Antibacterial Properties of Carica Papaya Leaf and Fruit Extracts
Kenneth Nnamdi Anueyiagu, Ebenezer Emmanuel Chai, Naomi Thomas, Godiya Clement1, Rose JK Bulus, Dorcas Alamisa Dankwambo1, Praise Nerat Tiri and Patience Godwin
DOI : 10.36344/ccijav.v02i01.001 | Cross Current Int J Agri Vet Sci, 2020; 2(1): 1-4
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Carica papaya has various medicinal uses ranging from promoting human health, suppressing sicknesses and diseases and also curing and preventing some diseases. The aim of this research is to determine the antibacterial properties of some parts of C. papaya plant (leaf, Ripe and unripe fruits). Aqueous extraction of leaf, epicarp and endocarp of unripe and ripe fruits of the plant was carried out and the extracts were diluted to 500mg/ml, then doubling dilution was carried out for 250mg/ml, 125mg/ml, 62.5mg/ml and 31.25mg/ml. Four test Bacteria used in this work were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The antibacterial activities of the aqueous extracts of the leaf, epicarp and endocarp of unripe and ripe fruits of C. fistula was determined using modified Kirby Bauer well-diffusion sensitivity testing method. The three extracts had bactericidal effect on the Gram Positive test bacteria than the Gram Negative test bacteria. The boost in medicinal herb development and sustenance should be encouraged by policy makers and philanthropists.
Antibacterial Activities of Cassia Fistula Leaf Bark and Root Extracts
Cross Current Int J Agri Vet Sci, 2020; 2(1): 5-8.
DOI : 10.36344/ccijav.v02i01.002 | Kenneth Nnamdi Anueyiagu, Anna Barka, Valentine Okolo Luka, Mubarak haruna Idris, Joel John, Amy
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The medicinal value of Cassia fistula which is commonly referred to as the golden shower is captured in traditional medicine as the “disease killer”. The aim of this study is to determine the antibacterial activities of leaf, bark and root of extracts C. fistula. Aqueous extraction of leaf, bark and roots of the plant was carried out and the extracts were diluted to 500mg/ml, then doubling dilution was carried out for 250mg/ml, 125mg/ml, 62.5mg/ml and 31.25mg/ml. Four test Bacteria used in this work were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The antibacterial activities of the aqueous extracts of the leaf, bark and root C. fistula was determined using modified Kirby Bauer well-diffusion sensitivity testing method. The three extracts had bactericidal effect on the Gram Positive test bacteria than the Gram Negative test bacteria. The boost in medicinal herb development and sustenance should be encouraged by policy makers and philanthropists.
Biochemical Constituents of Larvae of the Rhinoceros Beetle Oryctes Owariensis Beauvois (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) In Bayelsa State
Ukoroije, Rosemary Boate and Bobmanuel, Rosetta Bekinwari
DOI : 10.36344/ccijav | Cross Current Int J Agri Vet Sci, 2019; 1(6): 106-111
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Biochemical constituents of fresh and processed (dried) forms of Oryctes owariensis larvae were investigated in the laboratory using standard procedures stipulated by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). The values for the nutrient composition were higher for the fresh sample except for carbohydrates which was higher in the dried sample. Mean percentage values for moisture content was 9.34% and 3.74%; ash content: 4.73% and 2.44%; Crude protein: 41.75% and 36.86%; crude fat: 15.57% and 12.46%; crude fibre: 2.80% and 1.75%; carbohydrate: 35.15% and 46.52% respectively for fresh and dried O. owariensis larvae. Mineral salts and their compositions in the larvae were: calcium (48.57mg/100g and 46.39mg/100g); magnesium (270.91 mg/100g and 266.47mg/100g); sodium (97.57mg/100g and 88.68mg/100g); potassium (84.37mg/100g and 72.78mg/100g); iron (18.68mg/100g and 15.85mg/100g); manganese (5.92mg/100g and 6.67mg/100g); zinc(6.95mg/100g and 4.87mg/100g), phosphorus (93.86mg/100g and 76.94mg/100g) and copper (0.85mg/100g and 0.76mg/100g) in both the fresh and dried larval samples. The mineral content of the fresh form of the larvae were more than those of the dried larvae. The phytochemical analysis of the samples revealed the presence of alkaloids (2.35mg/100g), flavonoids (2.51mg/100g), saponin (1.49mg/100g), phenols (3.65mg/100g), oxalate (1.28mg/100g) and tannins (5.39mg/100g) respectively in the dried larval sample. The nutritional properties and the mineral composition of the larva calls for its complete utilization whether in fresh, dried or processed forms as food supplement for both livestock and humans.
Prevalence of Coliform Bacteria in Bovine Mastitis in Africa: A Systematic Review
Kenneth Nnamdi Anueyiagu, Ishaku Bata Shalangwa and Grace Ayanbimpe
DOI : 10.36344/ccijav | Cross Current Int J Agri Vet Sci, 2019; 1(5): 96-105
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Mastitis which is the inflammation of the mammary gland of mammals with changes in milk due to chemical, physical and bacteriological injuries results in reduction in milk yield and composition. The aim of this study was to assess by a systematic review of published data the occurrence of coliform bacteria in bovine mastitis in Africa from 2000 to 2017 and to investigate the risk factors associated with coliform mastitisThe Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) procedure was used in the study. The Sample, Phenomenon of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research type (SPIDER) tool was chosen and modified to establish the research question. Six databases were searched in this study viz., Science Direct, Cochrane Library-central, Medline, Google Scholar, PsycINFO and Open Grey (a grey literature). Studies were critically analyzed and assessed using the Crowe critical appraisal Tool (CCAT). The search strategy generated 121 articles out of which 14 were selected for quality assessment and data extraction. Major findings indicated that the prevalence of coliforms associated with bovine mastitis ranged from as low as 0.4% to as high as 87.5%. However, the most dominant pathogen associated with bovine mastitis was Staphylococcus aureus with a prevalence of ranging from 20.6 – 54.4%. Data generated from the reviewed articles showed age, parity number, lactation stage, and general management system of various farms as the most important factors that influence the development of bovine coliform mastitis in Africa