Cockroach Infestation and Their Perceived Importance in Yenagoa Metropolis of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Ukoroije, Rosemary Boate* and Bobmanuel, Rosetta Bekinwari
DOI : 10.36344/CCIJMB.2019.v01i06.007 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(6): 175-182.
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This study aimed at cockroach infestations and their perceived importance in disease transmission was carried out in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State of Nigeria using sample survey method involving the retrieval of 225 descriptive questionnaires from the people bound on their knowledge of cockroach as vector of pathogenic organisms and the possible modes of control. On the frequency of cockroach infestation in habitats, respondents reported 20.40% cockroach infestation in private homes, schools (7.80%), offices (5.90%), hospitals (12.20%), toilets (18.40%), dust bins (15.70%) and restaurants (19.60%). 82.4% of the respondents affirmed that cockroaches are carriers of disease pathogens and are implicated as causative organisms of allergies and respiratory disease. About 23.5% were well aware that cockroach infestation triggers asthmatic attack in sensitive people. All the surveyed houses reported cockroach infestation, with high prevalence in the older houses (71.40%) compared to the recently built ones (53.90%). 78.4% of the respondents gave poor sanitary condition as an indicator for high cockroach prevalence. Concerning best method of control, 54.90% voted for the use of synthetic pesticides, biological control (23.53%) and cultural control (21.57%). Therefore, the teeming populace of Bayelsa State should be educated as to the perceived importance of the prevalence of cockroaches in homes, hospitals and food preparation centers especially as vectors of pathogenic organisms and be further sensitized on the best control practices such as good sanitation practice, food hygiene, stocking foodstuffs in sealed containers and proper disposal of refuse so as to reduce cockroach related menace.
Bacteria Associated With the American Cockroach Periplanata Americana (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae) In Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Ukoroije, Rosemary Boate* and Bobmanuel Rosetta Bekinwari
DOI : 10.36344/CCIJMB.2019.v01i06.002 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(6): 146-151.
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Cockroaches have become the most common peridomestic insect pest of public health and epidemiological importance. The presence raises safety concerns, especially as carriers of food-borne pathogens and food-spoilage organisms. Using a swab bacteriological technique, investigations were carried out on the wings, legs and mouth parts of cockroaches trapped from sewers, kitchens and bathrooms from household in Amassoma, Bayelsa State. The density of microorganisms by standard plate count was used to analyze the samples. Microbial load gotten were 62 x 103 _ 76 x 103 cfu/ml-1 for wings, 45 x 103 ¬–53 x 103 cfu/ml-1for legs and 36 x 103¬- 41 x103 cfu/ml-1 for mouthparts respectively regarding heterotrophic bacterial count and 59 x 103 - 62 x 103 cfu/ml-1, 41 x 103 ¬- 53 x 103 cfu/ml-1 and 36 x 103 ¬- 43 x 103 cfu/ml-1 for fecal coliform count respectively. Five bacteria genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae, known as Opportunistic pathogens and responsible for food spoilage were identified such as Escherichia coli (33.3%) most frequently isolated, Citrobacter specie (16.7%), Enterobacter specie (16.7%) while Pseudomonas specie (22.2%) and Klebseilla specie (11.1%) were the least isolated. Highest bacteria count was recorded from the wings followed by the legs and the mouth. Cockroaches can readily move from contaminated zones such as faeces to food preparation areas spreading food spoilage and disease-causing organisms onto the food. Proper care in disposal of food remnants and overall cleanliness at the households prevent cockroaches from foraging in the kitchen, bedroom and toilet
Comparative Bacteriocidal Effect of Utazi (Gongronema Latifolium) and Onugbu (Vernonia Amygdalina) on Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated From Clinical Specimens at Specialist Hospital Owerri, Nigeria
. Uchegbu, UN, Uche-Uchegbu, N*, Dike-Ndudim, J, Onyenweaku, FC and Ndukwe, CK
DOI : 10.36344/CCIJMB.2019.v01i06.008 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(6): 183-188.
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The lowered immunity of patients with chronic kidney diseases and the increased bacterial resistance to a control antibiotic have given rise to the need to research and offer reliable evidences for the therapeutic values of the leafy vegetables like Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) and Gongronema latifolium (Utazi) in treating urinary tract infections caused by Gram negative bacteria. One hundred and twenty-seven (127) midstream urine samples were aseptically collected from patients suspected to develop renal diseases who attend the Specialist Hospital, Owerri into sterile, screw-capped universal containers and were inoculated onto CLED, EMB, Blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 24 hours to obtain pure colonies. Out of the one hundred and twenty-seven (127) urine samples, forty-three (33.86%) samples yielded no significant growth whereas eighty-four (66.14%) yielded significant bacterial growth. The predominant Gram negative isolate from the samples was Escherichia coli 35(41.67%), while the least isolated Gram negative organism was Proteus mirabilis9(10.71%). Other Gram negative isolates include Klebsiella pneumoniae 24(28.57%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 16(19.05%). Among the Gram negative isolates, Klebsiella pneumoniae had the highest mean zone of inhibition; (8.28), with Escherichia coli having the least mean zone of inhibition; (4.45). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis; (6.75), respectively. Ciprofloxacin which was the control antibiotic had statistical significant difference (P<0.05) on the Gram negative isolates when compared with the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plants. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis were completely resistant to the antimicrobial activity of Vernonia amygdalina aqueous extract. At 50mg/mL, Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be resistant while at 75-150 mg/mL concentrations, an insignificant mean zone of inhibition was noted. Generally, the ethanolic extracts sho
The Role of Hba1c In Severity and Mortality Rate of St Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction For Hospitalized Libyan Non Diabetic Patients
Asgad Abdalgbar* and Hanan K .G. Altalhi
DOI : 10.36344/CCIJMB.2019.v01i06.006 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(6): 169-174.
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The severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) is directly related to the quality of glucose controlindiabetic patient. Additionally diabetes is associated with increased mortality following acute myocardial infarction compared to general population.Objectives:To evaluate the association of HbA1c level and severity of CAD, and outcome of non-diabetic patient with STEMI In our hospital.Patients and methods:60 consecutive non diabetic patient with acute ST elevationmyocardial infarction were treated with thrombolytic therapy included in the present prospective study. Blood glucose and HbA1c level of all patients were measured within 3 hours ofadmission. Patient were divided in to 3 groups according to HbA1c level: with cut-off 6.5% as diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus according to (American diabetes association) group (1) 6.5% , group (2) 6.5 to 8.5% , group (3) 8.5% and above.In hospital .mortality and morbidities of acute STEMI were compared between groups.Result :The mean age was 63±15 year and mean body mass index was 26. 6±6 kg/m² , 24 patients (40%) had history of hypertension , 27 patients (45%) of dyslipidemia, 36 patients (60%) were smoker.We found 45 patients with HbA1c ≤ 6 5%, 5 patients with HbA1c 6.5 -8.5 %, 10 patients with HbA1c ≥ 8.5%.There was strong correlation between admission of HbA1c and admission glucose level (P< 0.001). Infarct size as measured by peak creatinin kinase, was not correlated with HbA1c level.Conclusion:HbA1c is an important risk marker in the absence of history of diabetes mellitus in patients with AMI . The optimal management in these patients may contribute in decrease hospital mortality.
Qualitative Assessment of Health and Care-Seeking Behaviors among Hiv-Infected Adults and Health Care Providers in Mozambique
Amílcar Magaço*, Carlos Botão, Réka Maulide Cane, Nely Honwana, Granélio Tamele, Peter Young, Jennifer Fagan and Francisco Mbofana
DOI : 10.36344/CCIJMB.2019.v01i06.004 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(6): 157-164.
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Background: From 2009 to 2014, the prevalence of HIV among adults in Mozambique increased from 11.5% to 13.2%. To reduce disease progression and prevent transmission, HIV-infected persons must have access to timely, continuous, high-quality HIV care and treatment services. This study aim to identify the barriers to early diagnosis, access to medical care, ART initiation and adherence. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients and health providers in Maputo City and Zambézia Province. Participants were recruited into the study at the time of HIV testing. Interviews were obtained at least 45 days after HIV diagnosis and were conducted in the community where the patients resided. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into Portuguese prior to analysis. A framework approach was used for analysis using NVivo 10.0. Results: Ninety patients and twelve providers were interviewed. Twenty-nine patients (32%) stated that they were motivated to get tested for HIV because they felt they had an unspecified health problem. Among pregnant women, nineteen (44%) were motivated to enroll in care and initiate ART by nurses during their first prenatal visit. Of the 90 newly diagnosed patients, 80% sought care and treatment for HIV after being diagnosed in a health facility. Conclusions: Test-seeking behaviour for persons newly diagnosed with HIV in this study was often influenced by their health status, both for patients accessing voluntarily counselling and testing and for patients who tested in antenatal care settings. Initiation of ART was also strongly influenced by provider recommendation.
Nutritional Status Evaluation of Children Under Two Years of Age in 03 Provinces of Mozambique
Réka Maulide Cane*, José Braz Chidassicua, Maria Patrícia Gonçalves, Sérgio Chicumbe, Acácio Sabonete and Francisco Mbofana
DOI : 10.36344/CCIJMB.2019.v01i06.003 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(6): 152-156.
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According to 'Countdown to 2015', more than 114,000 children die each year in Mozambique before reaching their fifth birthday. And is estimated 45% of these deaths is linked to malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of chronic malnutrition, acute malnutrition and underweight in children under 2 years of age. A cross-sectional study was made at Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula’s province in Mozambique. Anthropometric measurements (height for age, weight for height and weight for age) were made to 689 children under 2 years age. A team formed by 6 pollsters, 3 controllers and 6 nurses conducted the anthropometric measurements from April to June 2015. The anthropometric indicators used to access the nutritional status were: height-for-age (HA), weight-for-height (WH) and weight-for-age (WA). Measures were expressed in the form of a Z-score, which include: HAZ < −2 (stunting/chronic malnutrition), WHZ < −2 (wasting) and WAZ < −2 (underweight). The total rate of positive cases of malnutrition was: 51.6% stunting (320/619), 9% of wasting (56/613) and 17.9% (119/662) of underweight. Stunting prevalence was especially high among children with 6-11 months old. Stunting prevalence was higher in Niassa (55.7%) compared to Cabo Delgado (50.5%) and Nampula (39.2%).The rate of acute malnutrition was three times higher in rural communities (10%) compared to urban communities (7%). Underweight prevalence was higher in Cabo Delgado (23.8%) compared to Nampula (20.4%) and Niassa (14.4%). Our findings allowed us to draw recommendations to improve the implementation of health programs against malnutrition in these provinces
A Study on the Effect of Temperature in Effluent Treatment Process
DOI : 10.36344/CCIJMB.2019.v01i06.005 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(6): 165-168.
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An experimental investigation was carried out to determine the suitable temperature for efficient functioning of Effluent treatment plant. For this purpose different temperatures were maintained to reduce the Chemical Oxygen Demand and Biological Oxygen Demand during anaerobic process. Experiments were carried out by maintaining the pH 6.8- 7.2 at laboratory level for 5 days. Different temperature ranges i.e. 250C, 300C, 350 C and 400 C were maintained throughout the experiments. Among these four temperatures 400 C had given good results in reducing the COD and BOD levels.