Cross Current International Journal of Medical and Biosciences
Preliminary Phytochemical and Lipoprotein Studies of Desmodium velutinum Aqueous Leaves Extract on Albino Wistar Rats
Eze-Steven, P. E, Ude, C. M
DOI : 10.36344/ccijmb.2019.v01i01.001 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(1): 1-5
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Abstract: Studies on phytochemical analyses and aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium velutinum was carried using albino Wistar rats. Twenty eight (28) albino wistar rats used for this study were randomly distributed into four groups (I to IV) of seven (7) rats each. Test animals in groups II, III, and IV were initially fed with a high fat diet (10mg/kg) for 12 days. Group II animals remained untreated. The groups III and IV animals were later treated with 5 mg/kg of atorvastatin and 5 mg/kg of D. velutinum, respectively for 4 days. However, the group I rats were fed with normal feed for 12 days and served as the control. The serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels were determined from blood samples of the various groups of rats. The result showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the serum TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG concentrations of test animals following the administration of the atorvastatin and the extract. Alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and reducing sugars were found to be highly present in the crude extract. Other phytochemicals present in the extract were saponins, carbohydrate, steroids, cyanide and terpenoid. These findings indicate that the use of the extract lowered the serum lipid profile of albino wistar rats and may be of clinical importance to individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease.
Microbial Population and Antibiotic Resistance in Suya and Kilishi Processed Meat in Lafia Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Agade, Y. I., Faith, E.A, Zanwa, I. A
DOI : 10.36344/ccijmb.2019.v01i01.002 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(1): 6-12
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Abstract: This study was conducted to isolate and identify microbial population and antibiotic resistance profile of suya and kilishi in Lafia Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A total of sixteen beef samples (Suya =8) and (kilishi =8) were collected with swab stick and inoculated in 2mls of peptone water; then brought to the laboratory for culture. The 2mls of the various sample were then added to 10mls of peptone water and 1/10 dilution were made and sub-cultured on MacConkey agar and Eosin methylene blue agar (EMB agar) and incubated at 370C for 24 hr. The plate where then read, for colony count and bacteria identification using Gram staining and biochemical reagent. The mean total coliform count between suya and kilishi beef sample examined were 250x104 (cfu/ml) and 470x104(cfu/ml). Four strain of bacteria were isolated in the beef sample. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp and Pseudomonas spp, by comparing their morphological and biochemical characteristics with standard reference organisms. Of the four bacteria isolates from both suya and kilishi sample analyzed, Klebsiella spp was the highest with 25% followed by both Escherichia coli, Proteus spp with 6.25% where as 0.00% was recorded for Pseudomonas spp respectively. The results of all the isolates were sensitive and resistance to different antibiotic used. All the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin and resistance to augmentin and amoxicillin. Aseptic techniques should be adequately employed in the meat industries so as to reduce microbial load of meat and its products for safe consumption by consumers and thus prevent food-borne diseases or infections.
Procalcitonin as a Guide of Antibiotics Administration in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Naghmeh Arkan, Aliasghar Farazi, Ehsanollah Ghaznavirad, Farshideh Didgar
DOI : 10.36344/ccijmb.2019.v01i01.003 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(1): 13-18
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Abstract: Background: Pneumonia is one of the common infection-related death. Recently use of biomarkers in diagnostic and therapeutic approach to pneumonia has been considered. The aim of our study is to evaluate the length of antibiotic treatment, length of hospitalization and medical outcomes in procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy in patients with pneumonia. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial study with 134 hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia were enrolled to the study and randomly divided into two groups, procalcitonin group (PCT-guided therapy) and control group (customary clinical guidelines). All patients had 14 days follow up. Data were analyzed with appropriate statistical analysis and using version 16 of SPSS statistical software. Results: Totally, the assessed patients were in the range of 18-94 years old and the mean of age in control group was 62.87 ± 19.20 years and mean age of PCT group was 58.34 ± 19.32 years. Length of antibiotic treatment in the PCT group was 3.17 days’ vs 11.38 days in the control group (P < 0.0001). Length of hospitalization in the PCT group was 4.53 days’ vs 6.75 days in the control group that was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001). In 14 days follow up all patients had not any complication and clinically improved. Conclusions: In conclusion, procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment in patients with acute respiratory infections effectively reduced antibiotic exposure and antibiotic side-effects while reducing the length of hospitalization and treatment duration and accordingly, decrease the expenditure of patients’ treatment and avoid antibiotic resistance.
Changes of Equilibrium during Gestation
Márta Hock , Zsófia Dakos, Anett Tóvári, Eszter Ambrus, Péter Tardi, Brigitta Hajnal, János Kránicz , József Bódis
DOI : 10.36344/ccijmb.2019.v01i01.004 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(1): 19-25
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Abstract: Aim of the authors was to evaluate the effects of physical activity on body balance during gestation. Balance testing was performed in 80 normal pregnancies, where pregnancy exercises were regularly performed, in 80 pregnancies where bed rest was suggested and in 80 matched control volunteers (n=240). Dynamic balance was measured with five different tasks of the stabilometer (D1-D5). Data of balance testing of the groups were compared with t-test. Average results of static balance (eyes closed- and eyes opened) tests were significant worse in groups of healthy and pathologically pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women. Concerning the subgroups: those who had previously been involved in professional sports and were healthy and physically active during pregnancy performed better on the open–eye test compared to pathologically pregnant patients. Examining healthy pregnant women’s dynamic balance resulted in significantly worse performed D1-D5 exercises compared to non-pregnant women. Pathologically pregnant women were compared to non-pregnant women results of 4 tasks (D1, D3, D4, D5) showed a significant difference. Healthy pregnant women performed significantly better in exercises D1 and D4 than pathologically pregnant women. Between the second and third trimesters of healthy pregnancies a significant difference was detected in the movement of central point of body mass (D5). 21% of healthy pregnant women and 43.1% of women with gestational pathology reported an episode balance loss. Physical activity has positive effect on balance during pregnancy.
Effects of Spondias mombin and Aspilia africana Aqueous Extracts on Rats with Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Leiomyoma
P. E. Eze-Steven, S. C. Udedi , C. M. Ude
DOI : 10.36344/ccijmb.2019.v01i01.005 | Cross Current Int J Med Biosci, 2019; 1(1): 26-32
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Abstract: Uterine leiomyoma is commonly known as fibroid. Increased use of chemicals is believed to enhance its prevalence and monosodium glutamate is implicated. Fibroid is prevalent among black women with no known drug for its treatment. It is therefore necessary to determine a safer method for fibroid treatment. This work investigated effects of different aqueous extracts of Spondias mombin (hog plum) and Aspilia africana (wild sunflower) leaves on uterus and kidney cells of rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced fibroid. Twenty-eight rats used in this study were divided into four groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Fibroid was induced on the Positive control, Groups III and IV, after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid but the Positive control remained untreated. Groups III and IV were continuously ingested with same dose of MSG for the next 28 days with daily oral treatment using 250mg/kg body weight aqueous extracts of hog plum and wild sunflower, respectively. Histological examinations were performed on the 2nd and 4th weeks, respectively, on two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results showed degenerated endometrial cells and preserved nephritic tissues after treatment with aqueous extracts of S. mombin leaves. There was mild hyperplasia of endometrial cells after treatment with extract of A. africana in the 2nd week which differed from the 4th week. MSG has nephrotoxic properties and aqueous extract of S. mombin alleviated MSG oxidative powers on rats’ endometrial cells. With continuous ingestion, A. africana aqueous extract better preserved rat’s endometrium from oxidizing action of MSG. These extracts could be used as safer chemotherapy in fibroid management.