Cross-Currents: An International Peer-Reviewed Journal on Humanities & Social Sciences
Money Politics, Vote Trading and Democratic Governance in Nigeria
Oladiran Afolabi, PhD, Funmilayo Adeola Tanimola, PhD, and Folajimi Ojomo
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2020.v06i06.001 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2020; 6(6): 44-50.
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This paper explores the phenomenon of vote trading and use of money to entice the electorates in Nigeria’s democracy process and the implications on the future of democratic governance in the world’s most populous black nation. Vote trading has been in existence in Nigeria’s electoral system since independence. Although it is seen globally as an illegal act, the trend in the Nigerian case is overwhelming with political parties and their agents going all out to buy the conscience of the electorates to their favour during elections. The electoral body in Nigeria which has been responsible for monitoring and regulating the expenses of candidates and political parties during elections has also not been completely impartial in such obligations. The Electoral Act of 2010 clearly states the rules guiding campaign expenses and during the campaign of the 2019 general elections, the electoral body publicly informed all political parties about the spending limit for campaigns into public offices but this was majorly a mere public announcement as nothing concrete was done to curb the spending of these political parties and candidates who found other means to beat the electoral body to it. Vote trading is a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the Nigerian electoral Process with negative consequences on the nation’s Democratic governance.
Global-Local Actors and the Political Economy of Food Policy in Nigeria
Oladiran Afolabi, PhD
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2020.v06i06.002 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2020; 6(6): 51-57.
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Since independence in 1960, there have been several policies on food and agriculture in Nigeria. Each of these policy decisions with other associated initiatives and programmes were aimed at achieving food self-sufficiency and hence propel the country towards a food economy that is dependable and sustainable; which is a sine qua non for food security. However, lots of ambiguities and grail areas are imbedded in the Nigerian Agricultural and food Policies due to the inherent political and economic interests of the many actors involved in the policy making and implementation processes; in practical neglect of the people’s desires and food preferences. This paper argues that actors at both global and local levels have had influences in the food policy making process in Nigeria with attendant unpleasant consequences on the country’s food security. The identified actors within the context of this paper include: The World Bank, The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, and other transnational agri-business on one hand, and the government, political elites, and some influential farmers, on the other. The economic and political interests of these various actors had been a major stumbling block in the accomplishment of the food security in Nigeria
Studies on the Strategies of Promoting Positive Transfer in Mathematics Teaching in China
Chunge Shi and Zezhong Yang
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2020.v06i06.003 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2020; 6(6): 58-65.
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To guide students' learning transfer scientifically in the process of teaching practice for teachers and help students to improve learning efficiency, this study used the literature analysis method to summarize the relevant research on the strategies of promoting mathematics learning transfer in China. The conclusions are as follows: (1) In recent years, the research on the strategies of promoting mathematics learning transfer mainly focuses on four aspects: teaching or learning of mathematical thinking methods, teaching or learning of mathematical knowledge, thinking ability and emotional attitude, and teaching or learning methods. Previous studies are not only in-depth but also have many achievements. (2) We can find some obvious deficiencies by reviewing the previous research. In terms of research methods, most of the previous studies have adopted the method of theoretical speculation with few empirical methods, which greatly reduced the credibility of the research results. In the previous research results, most of the predecessors discussed the methods and strategies directly based on the migration theory, which is still theoretical and less feasible, which made these strategies are very broad and not suitable for direct implementation. (3) There are also some gaps in previous studies. There is almost no research on the evaluation mechanism of the above-mentioned strategic suggestions and little research on the strategies for promoting the transfer of other specific courses of college mathematics, so there is still a lot of space in the research scope.
The Significance of Islamic Moral Education in Nigeria for National Advancement
Dr. Lawal Abdulkareem
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2020.v06i06.004 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2020; 6(6): 66-73.
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The training of child's personality towards the best moral and social conduct and encouraging him through this training to grow up as a good, self-disciplined, responsible and law-abiding citizen who values his nation and is ready to safeguard the interest of his society, is one of the significances of Islamic Moral Education. To provide this moral training is therefore relevant to the present period when all kinds of corruption and vices like wine-drinking, adultery and fornication, theft and armed robbery, kidnapping and banditry, fraud, bribery, cheating in marketing and devouring of people's wealth without their consent pervade our society. No nation can have meaningful advancement without controlling such immoral and social vices. In view of this therefore, this paper is intended to discuss on the significance of Islamic Moral Education in Nigeria for National Advancement.
The Status of a Muslim Woman in the Glorious Qur’an
Dr. Lawal Abdulkareem
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2020.v06i06.005 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2020; 6(6): 74-84.
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Before the revelation of the Glorious Qur‘an, women in pre-Islamic paganism were mostly denied of all rights. They were exposed to different kinds of atrocities and multiple hardships since the beginning of creation. They occupied a low and degraded status in most societies. They were customarily assigned the most despised and least important jobs and positions. In some cultures, women were degraded to the extent that men claimed that women were nothing but the epitome of evil. In a nutshell, prior to the revelation of the Glorious Book of Islam, women were deprived of the rights to education; bought and sold like any other commodity; deprived of the right of inheritance; and considered as minors with no rights to make any transactions or to possess wealth. They were generally subjected to the will of men throughout their lives. However, after the advent of Islam, the Glorious Qur’an emancipated women from all sorts of injustice and exploitation. This paper therefore, intends to discuss on how the Glorious Qur’an liberated women from all unfair bondages on the one hand, and also how it recognized their status similar to that of their male counterparts on the other.
Why Students Dropout? Case Study of Dropout Attributions in West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2020.v06i06.006 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2020; 6(6): 85-91.
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This study aims to find the factors and dominant factors causing drop out in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The data collection used in-depth interviews and data analysis used an interactive model. The factors identified causing dropout are; laziness, poor motivation of children to go to school, negative perceptions about their cognitive abilities and their parents to pay fees, weak family economic, lack of motivation and guidance of parents, pessimistic towards the sustainability of children's education, weak parents' expectations in education, weak parents' expectations to the future of children, weak parents' attention to children's education, neglect of children, association with peers who are not in school, and gender-biased in culture. From these factors, the dominant factors are the poor motivation of children to go to school, gender-biased in cultures, lack of parents' expectations in education, weak parents' expectations of their children's future, and neglect of children.
Exclusive Breast Feeding of Infants of Recently Delivered Women of Uttar Pradesh, India
Dr. Tridibesh Tripathy, Prof D. R. Sahu, Dr. Umakant Prusty, Dr. Chintamani Nayak
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2020.v06i06.007 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2020; 6(6): 92-101.
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When ASHAs were introduced in NRHM in 2005, their primary aim was to visit homes of newborns as the first program in Uttar Pradesh (UP) operated through the ASHAs was the Comprehensive Child Survival Program in 2008. Since then, tracking of all deliveries and all the newborns are an integral part of the work of ASHAs in all the primary health care programs operated by the NHM in UP (GoI,2005, GoUP, 2013). The current article examines the role & work of ASHAs through the responses of the mothers of newborns & infants at district level. Evaluation studies on the performance of ASHAs was done since 2011 as by then ASHAs had actually worked in the field for a minimum period of 5 years. It is to be noted that National Rural Health Mission was rolled out in April 2005 but it took about one to two years for the states to hire ASHAs and put things in place right from the state to the village level (GOUP, 2013). In this article, a comprehensive feedback is elicited from the Recently Delivered Women on the Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) practices of their infants as part of newborn & infant care program at the district level. The current study explores some of the crucial variables on the home-based newborn care activities like the ideal practice of EBF of the newborn & infants through the response of mothers of newborns & infants on newborn care. The ideal practice of EBF in newborn & infants in child health programs is a critical facilitator in breastfeeding practices. The current article follows up the role of ASHAs in Home Based Newborn Care & child care program through the response of the mothers on EBF & the type of fluids they gave to their children on the day prior to the survey. The mothers were selected as respondents as they were the selected mothers from the list of mothers available with their ASHAs at the time of survey. The relevance of the study assumes significance as data on the details of EBF in actual months & the type of fluid other than breastmilk given