Cross-Currents: An International Peer-Reviewed Journal on Humanities & Social Sciences
Impact of the Influence of Politics in Funding of Higher Education
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2018.v04i05.001 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2018; 4(5): 98-102
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Abstract: Changes in the finance of HE introduced in the past twenty years include introduction of tuition fees or other charges in countries where HE tuition was previously free, substantial increases in tuition fees in several countries where they did previously exist, and changes in student aid systems, including in many countries a shift towards student loans to supplement or replace grants. Such changes have been the subject of controversy and debate. Many economists have contributed to this through individual research and publications, submissions to government committees considering changes in policy, or in work for international agencies such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) or the World Bank. This paper attempts to explore some of the manifestations of political influence in the funding of higher education.
Keywords: Impact, politics, higher education, funding, influence
The Development of the Private Funding of Higher Education: Challenges and Successes
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2018.v04i05.002 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2018; 4(5): 103-109
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Abstract: An increase of private resources for higher education can be achieved through the establishment or expansion of private institutions that are partially or entirely financed from contributions by students and their families, as well as by the mobilisation of new resources by the public sector, among which user contributions play a primary role. These different methods, regrouped in a simplistic manner under the category of “privatisation”, deserve to being distinguished, one from the others. This paper attempts to explore various models of private sector funding of universities.
Keywords: Higher education, development, successes, private funding, challenges
The Politics of Attack through Gendered Hausa Proverbs
Prof (Mrs) Asabe Kabir Usman
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2018.v04i05.003 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2018; 4(5): 110-117
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Abstract: Proverb may be defined as “pieces of folk wisdom expressed with terseness and charm. The "terseness implies a certain economy in the choice of words and a sharpness of focus, while the "charm" conveys the touch of literary or poetic beauty in the expression”. Apart from giving insights into human behaviour and psychology, Hausa proverbs serve as mirrors of the cultural norms and values of the society. They are employed not only to entertain, educate, advice but most often to buttress a point, and to give an argument universal acceptability. Patriarchy as a social system which has been in existence over the centuries most often make certain that members of the opposite sex sustain conditioned behaviours toward one another. Varying views and expectations about masculinity and femininity have to a large extent affected the socio-cultural beliefs and attitudes of men and women in Hausa society. Gender proverbs in Hausa society are very common. They deal with among other things gender relations and the status the different sexes accord each other. This paper, therefore attempts an appraisal of gender based proverbs which have over time been used as tool of attack by the different sexes in Hausa society.
Keywords: Proverb, Hausa, Gender, Woman, Man, Maza, Mata
African Philosophy: The Questions of Climate Change and the Environment
Dr. Joyce Onoromhenre Agofure, Aisha Umar M
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2018.v04i05.004 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2018; 4(5): 118-122
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Abstract: With the growing awareness of environmental issues in the twenty-first century, this study explores the extent to which African philosophy contributes extensively to the discourse of climate change and the natural world. However, some critics are of the view that African philosophy is inherently anthropocentric and has nothing significant to offer in addressing climate change. Against this backdrop, this undertaking illustrates that the natural environment for Africans is not labeled “other” as often observed among industrialists rather it is a vital part of the African traditional world equilibrium. Hence, anything that imperils the African peoples’ ecosystem endangers their very existence-socially, economically, morally, politically, spiritually and ecologically. The study demonstrates that there is a huge correlation between socio-political, economic and suppressive structures in Africa’s postcolonial condition which have brought about climate change, environmental despoliation and underdevelopment in the African ecological space. Taken together, the study employs Deep ecology--a philosophical approach which addresses ecological problems by bringing together thinking, feeling, spirituality and action. African philosophy along with Deep ecology emphasize that the engagements of modern-day civilization threaten ecological well-being hence, the drastic need to transform contemporary environments toward a better ecological sustainability.
Keywords: African philosophy, Climate change, Environment, Postcolonial condition
Poverty Reduction in Ghana: The Role of Farm and Non-Farm Enterprises
Francis Issahaku Malongza Bukar, Moses Naiim Fuseini, Mohammed Sulemana, William Aduah Yorose, Mohammed Gadafi Ibrahim
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2018.v04i05.005 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2018; 4(5): 123-129
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Abstract: Ghana has experienced a general decline in the levels of poverty. Despite this drop, there are patches of poverty in both rural and urban with the rural setting being the worst affected. This situation emerged possibly because the kind of livelihood strategies adopted did not ensure a sustainable and complete reduction in the poverty levels across the entire country. On that account, this study examined how farm and non-farm livelihoods promote poverty reduction in Ghana. Data were from Ghana Statistical Service database. Analysis of data involved one-sample t-tests and independent sample t-tests. The study finds that, significant differences exist between rural and urban residents’ income earnings from farm activities, non-farm enterprises and the upper poverty line. The study concludes that both farm and non-farm activities are crucial to ending poverty in Ghana. It is recommended that agriculture and non-farm enterprises be developed in both rural and urban settings respectively.
Keywords: Farm Enterprises, Non-farm Enterprises, Rural, Urban, Poverty Reduction, Ghana
A Survey of Folk Intuitions about the Physical Criterion of Personal Identity among Some Philosophically Laypeople
Makotoka Kahaka , Baampatlha Dinama
DOI : 10.36344/ccijhss.2018.v04i05.006 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2018; 4(5): 130-138
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Abstract: The paper attempts to answer the question whether some of the views and theories on personal identity proposed and debated by professional philosophers is supported by ordinary intuitions. Rather than using the traditional conceptual analysis method of philosophy also known as the armchair method, the paper relies on an experimental method using a questionnaire to investigate ordinary beliefs and conceptions of philosophically laypeople about what constitute personal identity overtime. This was done by seeking the opinion of some members of the lay-public on some of the main claims of common theories on personal identity, thereby determining whether the said theories are intuitive to most laypersons or not. With respect to the physical criterion of personal identity, empirical testing shows that the theories under this criterion are not nearly as intuitive as some of its proponents commonly assume, which then makes it difficult to adopt them as the means through which personal identity overtime can be explained and understood.
Keywords: Personal identity, physical criterion, folk intuition, philosophically laypeople, lay-public