Cross-Currents: An International Peer-Reviewed Journal on Humanities & Social Sciences
Who Gave More United States Foreign Aid To Sierra Leone? George W. Bush vs. Barack H. Obama
Abdul Karim Bangura*
DOI : DOI: 10.36344/ccijhss.2019.v05i10.007 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2019; 5(10): 310-315.
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It behooves me to begin this article by making it very clear that it is not about explaining the causes/reasons and effects/outcomes for the amounts of the economic aid (i.e. humanitarian and development assistance) and military aid (i.e. military and police assistance) provided to Sierra Leone by the George W. Bush Administration (2001-2008) and the Barack H. Obama Administration (2009-2016), as I have done for a number of previous United States administrations in earlier works (Bangura, 2001, 2007, 2008, 2009 & 2015). Instead, the objective here is to determine which of the two Presidents provided more of this aid to Sierra Leone. In essence, it is a descriptive account. And, as I describe it and its import in our book titled Peace Research for Africa: Critical Essays on Methodology, the descriptive account seeks to answer the what is question; it is therefore important in developing an accurate profile of situations, events, or persons (Bangura and McCandless, 2007:128 & 165).
The “Arab Spring”: An Epitome of Western Political Machinations
Abdul Karim Bangura*
DOI : DOI: 10.36344/ccijhss.2019.v05i10.008 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2019; 5(10): 316-328.
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When I received the invitation to make a presentation on “the impact of the Arab Spring on sub-Saharan Africa (or perhaps vice versa),” I embarked upon an extensive search for literature on the topic via libraries, archives, and the Internet. My search yielded two major works, the November 2011 report by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) titled Africa and the Arab Spring: A New Era of Democratic Expectations and an edited volume titled Africa Awakening: The Emerging Revolutions (2011), and many news articles. An examination of these writings made it possible for me to delineate the following three themes within which their analyses have been subsumed in this essay: (1) the struggle over conceptualizing the Arab Spring, (2) the competing postulates on the possibility for the spread of the Arab Spring across Africa, and (3) the consequences from the Arab Spring. In the end, a conclusion is drawn and a recommendation is made based on the discussion.
Negative Impact of Chinese Thinking Mode on Cross-Cultural Business English Writing
Tian Dong and Yating, Tao*
DOI : DOI: 10.36344/ccijhss.2019.v05i10.006 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2019; 5(10): 305-309.
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With the prosperity of various world trade organizations, the ability of cross-cultural business English writing is becoming more and more critical. As one form of language output, cross-cultural business English writing is profoundly affected by huge differences existing in the way of thinking between Chinese and westerners. This article, combining with Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and Kaplan theory, mainly focuses on studying the negative effects of Chinese thinking mode by analyzing the common mistakes in daily business English writing from three levels of vocabulary, syntax, discourse and then puts forward countermeasures for improving the ability of cross-cultural business English writing and communication.
The First Name in Seereer Traditional Society: Semantic and Onomastic Approach
Daouda NGOM* and Diome FAYE
DOI : DOI: 10.36344/ccijhss.2019.v05i10.005 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2019; 5(10): 294-304.
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The deepness and seriousness of the seereer nomination system make it remain an original and fascinating research subject. The seereer first name can be considered as being a part of the seereer personal history, which defines who he is and where he lives. A real comprehension of the seereer first name requires a semantic and onomastic study which dives us in the history and etymology of the first name. This article scores up this logic. It aims to study the process of the seereer traditional nomination of the first name, to show how is the seereer first name acquired, and then to make a categorization of first names and that of some particular surnames. Therefore, this is about a deciphering of the semantic content, of the social value and of the symbolism which the first name encodes. Through the seereer first name, appear a lot of heterogeneous elements of a highly sociocultural coloration such as the religious propensity, the mystical and mythic aspect, the patronymic and geographical belonging, the physical and alimentary particularities, the simulation and conspiracy in prayers, the disinterestedness, etc. of the seereer person in question.
Teachers Who Face the Challenges of Educational Integration in Palestine
Dr. Ashraf M. H Abu Khayran*
DOI : DOI: 10.36344/ccijhss.2019.v05i10.004 | Cross Current Int J Peer Reviewed J Human Soc Sci, 2019; 5(10): 287-293.
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The objective of this study was to investigate and recognise teachers’ perceptions regarding the most significant difficulties faced by the programme for integrating students with disabilities into regular classes in Bethlehem; in particular, perspectives of the current situation and the ideal scenario were obtained. A descriptive methodology was utilised, and the parameters of reliability and validity were applied to the elaboration of a survey. The results were organised in accordance with the topics addressed by teachers’ opinions, which included students, teachers, parents, schools, curricula, extracurricular activities, classroom management, teaching methodology, and awareness and attitude.